The decision of authorized third parties should be based on their knowledge of potential participants and on taking into account the well-being of potential participants. Third parties should not be in a position of interest in their decision. Researchers should not attribute irrational or undignified motives to participants without providing convincing documentation and justification. Researchers must respect the values and views of researchers, especially when they are different from those generally accepted by society. DREs and researchers should also pay particular attention to the confidence and dependence of the element in relationships (for example. B between the doctor and the patient or between the teacher and the student). These relationships may have an inappropriate influence on the individual in the position of dependence to participate in research projects. Any relationship of dependence, even carer, can lead to an inappropriate influence, even if it is not applied wisely. In situations of persistent or significant dependence, there may be an increased risk of inappropriate influence. Another exception is that of public figures who may find that the increasing attention they encounter threatens their individual freedom. However, since they have voluntarily sought public attention or accepted positions that involve advertising, it cannot be exempted that their freedom is as threatened as that of others.
Public figures should expect that the public aspects of their work will be researched. However, they should be informed of the purpose of the research when they participate as informants, out of respect for their self-determination and freedom. A third exception is that if the information cannot be given before the start of the research, for example.B. if a researcher cannot reveal the true purpose of an experiment. Such exceptions must be justified by the value of research and the absence of alternatives, and the researcher must pay particular attention to respect for human dignity and the protection of individuals. It is often possible to provide participants with general information about the project upstream and then detailed information, both about the project and why they were not fully informed in advance. Double blind: procedures that prevent human researchers and researchers from discovering who is receiving an experimental treatment compared to a placebo. Double blind is used to control the placebo effect. This section deals with the exclusion of consent in situations where a person in urgent need of health care is unable, due to loss of consciousness or decision-making ability, to consent to research – and the delay in obtaining third parties subject to approval may seriously harm that person`s health.
Some types of emergency medical practices can only be evaluated if they occur, which is why this exception is necessary. Universities and fachhochschulen have a special responsibility for disseminating scientific knowledge, results and standards and values, both in their teaching of students as well as in public administration, cultural life, economics and industry. 37 institutions should promote dissemination, for example when appointing staff, education or financial incentives.